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What is the history of white revolution in India?

What is White Revolution, Benefits of Milk Revolution and History of White Revolution in India (White Revolution in India definition, benefits, history)

after independence of the country Green revolution And the White Revolution was the only two revolutions, due to which there were major changes in the economic condition of India. The White Revolution started in the country in 1970, it brought a lot of changes in the dairy industry and the poor farmers got employment. Due to this program, the number of healthy animals increased in the country, modern technology was also used for milk production. In fact, the purpose of this revolution was to bring India into the category of the largest milk producing countries in the world. And this program made India, which was facing a shortage of milk for a time, the leader in milk production in the world.

what is white revolution

Revolution name White Revolution / Milk Revolution / White Revolution
Other names of Revolution operation flood
Father of Revolution Vergis Kurien
Inauguration of Revolution 1970
Ending of Revolution 1996
Total number of Phases 3
First Phase 1970-1980
Second Phase 1980-1985
Third Phase 1985-1996

Why and who started the White Revolution? (Who started or Father of White Revolution)

Verghese Kurien was the father of White Revolution. He founded Amul, the largest milk producing company in the country. This operation was based on the experimental pattern of Amul Chairman Verghese Kurien. For this reason, he was also made the chairman of NDDB. He is also known as the architect of Operation Flood. at that time Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri Several other companies under his leadership and with Amul’s infrastructure arrangement and resource management started the National Dairy Development Board. Kurien along with his friend HM Dalaya contributed to the invention of the technology of making milk powder from buffalo milk and condensed milk.

What was the reason for the start of the White Revolution? (Reason of the Whit Revolution)

after independence The development of rural areas of the country had become very important, because then not only was crop production a problem, but the country was also lagging behind in the field of milk production. The economic burden on the country started increasing due to import of milk and dairy products from outside. Although milk production had increased in the 1950s and 1960s, the annual production growth remained negative in these years. after independence of the country The annual compound growth in the first decade was 1.64 percent, which fell to 1.15 percent by the end of 1960. Due to this, the Government of India tried to be self-sufficient in milk production by making major changes in the policies in the dairy sector.

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Inaugurated Amul’s Cattail Feed Factory at Kanjari on 31 October 1946. He not only understood the need of this project, but was also very interested in its success. That is why he spent a night with the farmers in the villages and settled in different parts of the country with Kurien. Farmers’ economic progress and problems Talked about in detail. The National Dairy Development Board was formed as a result of this visit.

Operation Flood was launched in July 1970 under the technical assistance of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Food and Agriculture (FAO).

History of White Revolution in India

The White Revolution is also known as Operation Flood. It was launched in 1970, it was started by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) of India, which later proved to be the largest dairy program in the world.

A separate agency “Indian Dairy Corporation” (IDC) was formed by Dr. Verghese Kurien, so that Operation Flood could get the grant. And thus the milk production, which was 22,000 tonnes at the beginning of the plan, reached 1,40000 tonnes by 1989.

When Amul started, there were many competitors in the market like Polson and other foreign companies, but Amul not only gave tough competition to all of them, but it also became India’s most preferred dairy company very soon. In fact, due to this White Revolution, where milk production was 17 million tonnes in 1950-51, it reached 84.6 million tonnes by 2001-02.

Phases of White Revolution

This revolution was not a small five-year plan, but a long-term plan made by the government in three well-planned phases.

  • First stage (Phase 1):

This phase started in July 1970, which lasted till 1980. Its objective was to set up 18 milk sheds in 10 states. All these milk sheds were connected to 4 big city markets (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai). By the end of this phase in 1981, dairy cooperatives had developed in 13,000 villages, of which 15,000 were farmers. In the first phase, skimmed milk powder and butter gifted by the European Economic Community were sold and financial assistance was received from it. NDDB had planned this program and determined its details with the help of European Economic Community (EEC).

  • second stage (Phase 2):

The purpose of this phase, which ran from 1981 to 1985, was to carry forward the first phase and run dairy development programs in other states like Karnataka, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. By the end of this phase in 1985, 136 milk sheds were formed, which was spread over 34,500 villages and 43000 villages produced up to 4.25 million milk. By 1989, the domestic milk production also increased to 22000 tonnes, in all this the gift of this and the World Bank loan helped a lot. Operation Flood was being jointly sponsored by the European Economic Community, the World Bank and India’s National Dairy Development.

UNDP was also providing assistance by sending foreign experts, consultants and equipment. The World Bank and its allies also supported the country in areas such as agricultural extension, rain-fed fish farms, storage and marketing.

  • third step (Phase 3):

The third phase further strengthened and developed the White Revolution, during which milk production increased, and infrastructure was also improved. Veterinary first and health care services, feed and artificial insemination services were provided for cooperative members. 30,000 new dairy cooperatives were added during this phase. In 1988-1989, the number of milk sheds also increased to 173, one of its features was that the number of women members also started increasing in it. In 1995, the Women’s Dairy Cooperative Leadership Program (WDCLP) was also launched as a pilot project. The aim of which was to increase the participation of women in the dairy cooperative movement. The main strategy in the villages was to train local women and increase their latent potential. In this phase, more importance is given to providing nutritious food to animals, new innovations like making vaccines for theileriosis, bypassing protein feed and increasing the number of milch animals. Gave.

By the time this phase ended in 1996, 73,300 dairies had become operative among 9.4 million farmers. By the end of this phase though the private agency cooperatives could not produce milk from the villages, but still this phase had achieved more than the target set.

At that time such situations and plans were made, from which its benefits could be obtained for a long time. As a market was created for raw milk, with which many technical services were also developed, milk production increased due to many facilities like cattle feed, emergency health service. 3 State of the Art Dairy was formed, so that quality products could be made for the domestic and export market.

Even when the demand for milk was increasing during Operation Flood, the total number of cattle was fixed. Breeds of cow and buffalo were also upgraded. Productivity was also increased by getting non-descript cows bred with exotic semen. Research and development also took place in Animal Husbandry. In 1998, the World Bank published a report, which showed the impact of dairy development and its impact in India. It was told in this audit that the World Bank invested 200 crores in this operation flood, and in the next 10 years, economic progress of about 24,000 crores per year was made from rural areas, which no other dairy program had achieved.

Benefits of White Revolution

  • Milk production in the country increased from 20 million metric tons to 100 million metric tons in just 40 years. And it became possible only because of this dairy cooperative movement.
  • This revolution encouraged the farmers of the country to keep more and more animals, due to which there were up to 500 million buffaloes and cattle in the country. Which are the highest in the world.
  • Dairy cooperative movement took place in all parts of the country, which benefited 125000 villages in 180 districts of 22 states. This movement was very successful due to its developed achievements and the support system of the states and districts,

From the table given below, we can understand the change in the annual growth rate from before to after the White Revolution.

Annual Growth Rate (%) of Important Livestock in the Country

Period Milk eggs wool
1950-51 to 1960-1961 1.64 4.63 0.38
1960-61 to 1973-74 1.15 7.91 0.34
1973-1974 to 1980-1981 4.51 3.79 0.77
1980-81 to 1990-91 5.68 7.8 2.32
1990-91 to 2000 -01 4.21 4.46 2.01

Annual Growth Rate as per the Five Year Plan from 1975-76 to 2001-02

Plan Year Milk eggs wool
fifth five year plan 1975-76 to 1979-80 2.91 3.5 1.49
Sixth Pancharshiya Plan 1980-81 to 1984-85 6.42 8.4 2.67
seventh five year plan 1985-86 to 1989-90 4.37 7.23 1.88
eighth five year plan 1992-93 to 1996-97 4.41 4.58 0.8
ninth five year plan 1997-98 to 2001-02 4.13 4.34 2.14

Source: Basic Animal Basic Husbandry Statistics 2002, Department of Animal Husbandry and Daring, Ministry of Agriculture

Disadvantages of White Revolution

Seeing the success of the White Revolution, it can be understood that its losses were very less, but yes there were some difficulties, which the milk producers and farmers had to face. For example, animals of foreign breed would give more milk, but it was difficult for them to survive in this situation. Due to this, the financial burden on common villagers and small private sector companies also increased for the fulfillment of their food and other necessities. The milk obtained during this time did not contain all the nutrients, which could have a bad effect on health.

Today 3 important areas in animal breeding are Artificial Insemination and Quantitative Genetic Technique, Embryo Transfer and Embryo Micro Manipulation Technique and Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, which are definitely the product of White Revolution. Today 12 million farmers in 22 states have about 250 dairy plants, from which about 20 million liters of milk are produced per day. In 1955, we used to import about 500 tons of butter per year, today the cooperative sector in the country 1200 tonnes of butter is made from itself. Where we used to import 3000 tonnes of baby food in 1955, we now have 38000 tonnes of baby food made here. In fact, due to the Milk Revolution, the import of all milk and milk products had stopped till 1975, which was a big success at that time, so from today’s situation, the benefits derived from the success of this revolution can be estimated. Huh.

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