What is Geneva Conventions and information about the Geneva Treaty and the Rights of Prisoners of War (What is Geneva Conventions, prisoner of war (POD) Details, Rules, in Hindi)
You must be aware that recently our Very bad situation between India and Pakistan in the country is going on. Where a brave soldier of our country’s air force Soldier Wing Commander Abhinandan was taken prisoner by the Pakistani army. But the Geneva Treaty was cited by India to Pakistan, due to which Pakistan had to release Wing Commander Abhinandan. But you must be curious to know, what is the Geneva Convention and how does it work. So today we are giving you information about it through this article.
What is the Geneva Agreement? (What is Geneva Convention)
The Geneva Agreement is an agreement made during the war between two countries, which includes 4 agreements and 3 protocols. Under this, the standard of international law for humanitarian treatment in war is established. In other words, when there is a war between two countries and during the war, if any soldier or civilian crosses the border i.e. reaches the border of the enemy country, then international law applies to him. And that soldier is also called Prisoner of War. Some rules have been made under this law, in which it has been said, how should the enemy country treat those soldiers and how the soldier should be sent back to his country.
Geneva Convention History
The history of the Geneva Accords goes back many years. Once upon a time, Swiss businessman Henri Dunant, a social worker, was the founder of the Red Cross and the first Nobel Peace Prize recipient. He went to meet the wounded soldiers after the Battle of Solferino in 1859. They were shocked by the lack of facilities, security personnel and medical aid available to help these soldiers. As a result, in 1862, he published a book, A Memory of Solferino, on the horror scene of the war. In that book, he expressed his views on the experiences of the war. From these experiences, the idea of the proposal of the Geneva Accord also appeared in his mind, which he presented among the people. After this, whenever the Geneva Convention was amended, it was done by the International Red Cross itself.
Geneva Convention Details
The 4 agreements and 3 protocols that were included in the Geneva Accords were detailed as follows.
- First Geneva Convention :- This agreement ‘for the improvement of the condition of the wounded and sick in the armed forces in war’ was first implemented in the year 1864. After this it was updated 3 more times. Actually it was revised after 1864 in 1906 and again in 1929. Then in 1949 it became completely final.
- Second Geneva convention:- This agreement was proposed as the second Geneva Convention in 1906–07, ‘For the Improvement of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of the Armed Forces at Sea’. This was the first Geneva Convention on the Protection of Victims of a Sea War, which functioned similarly to the earlier Geneva Convention. This agreement is also called the Haig Agreement. This too was fully implemented in 1949.
- Third Geneva Agreement :- This third Geneva Convention was implemented “for the treatment of prisoners of war or prisoner of war in military combat other than war or war”. Under this agreement, the prisoner of war, also known as the Prisoner of War, has been asked to be sent back to his own country. this agreement After World War II In 1949, it replaced the Geneva Accords of 1929.
- Fourth Geneva Agreement :- After this, in addition to these three agreements, a fourth Geneva Convention was proposed to be implemented in the coffers, which was ‘for the protection of civilians in times of war’. This was the first Geneva Convention, which was not to deal with any fighting, but its subject was the protection of civilians. However, in the agreement of 1899 and 1907, there were already some provisions for the protection of citizens and occupied areas. Article 154 of the Geneva Accords specifically describes the Fourth Geneva Accords in detail.
In this way, it was amended and implemented for many years. Then it came into full force on 12 August 1949 in the form of ‘Geneva Agreement’, which was signed by 196 countries.
Protocols :- The 1949 agreement was amended with the 3rd Amendment Protocol. Which is as follows –
- Protocol 1 :- The first protocol was related to the protection of victims in international armed conflicts in 1977.
- Protocol 2 :- The second protocol was also related to the protection of victims in non-international armed conflicts in 1977.
- Protocol 3 :- The third protocol pertained to the adoption of an additional special symbol in 2005.
These 4 agreements and 3 protocols were settled after the Second World War, and are now fully implemented among the 196 signatories to this agreement.
Geneva Convention Rules
Under the above-mentioned Geneva Agreement, some rules have been made for the Prisoner of War in the year 1949, which are as follows –
- When a soldier goes to an enemy country, there should not be any barbarism or discriminatory treatment of that prisoner of war in that country. Also they should not be humiliated.
- Along with this, if he is injured, then the responsibility of taking good care of him should also belong to that country.
- However, there is also a rule in this agreement, under which if that country wants to prosecute that soldier, then he can do it. But that soldier should also be given legal facility.
- There should not be any atrocities on the soldiers of war, nor should they be intimidated. Rather, they should also be provided with food and drink.
- A prisoner of war soldier can be interrogated only about his name, unit, military rank and number.
- This is the most important rule under the Geneva Convention, that when the war is over, that soldier must be returned by the enemy country.
Apart from this, if any civilian or any injured soldier, who can no longer take part in the war, these rules will also apply to them.
Wing Commander Abhinandan’s release under the Geneva Accords (Wing Commander Abhinandan Release Under Geneva Convention)
When Wing Commander Abhinandan fell from his plane in the border of Pakistan, he was captured by the Pakistani Army. But India asked him to send Abhinandan back due to the Geneva Agreement. In fact, under the Third Geneva Agreement, whether there is a case of all kinds of war or any other military battle, or it is taking place between 2 or more countries. Once the battle is over, if any soldier of the Army or Air Force or Navy remains in the enemy country, then that country has to return that soldier. For this it is not necessary that it is a war between two countries, only then it will be applicable, or that soldier is called Prisoner of War, then it will be applicable. It can be applicable in any situation. So under this agreement, India asked Pakistan to release Wing Commander Abhinandan.
other side Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan It was agreed for the release of Abhinandan. But the Prime Minister of Pakistan had said that the release of IAF pilot Abhinandan is a ‘sign of peace’ for him. But it is necessary for you to know that the release of Abhinandan by Pakistan has been done under the Geneva Agreement, and not it is a sign of their peace.
In this way, due to the Geneva Accord, the enemy country had to send back Abhinandan, a brave soldier of our country. With this, Pakistan, which had intended to threaten India by making that soldier as one of its weapons, could not be fulfilled, and this led to India’s victory once again.