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What is an operating system, how does it work


What is Operating System, Types, Uses, Features, Services, Windows, Essay on Operating System (Operating System Tutorial in Hindi, for Computer, Mobile, Types, Services, Functios, Interview Questions)

You all must know that there are many software in the computer through which the computer works. The most important software in a computer is the operating system. In this article of ours, today we are going to tell you about the operating system, what is it, what is its function in the computer and its types.

what is operating system

What is Operating System

Operating system is a type of software or we can also say that it is a type of program. We also know it by the name of OS. Operating system plays the most important role in any computer. In common language, we say that it acts as an intermediary between the computer and the user, or say that the system operating all the functions in the computer is called the operating system, which operates and controls all the processes of the computer.

How does operating system work? (How does The Operating System Work?)

  • As we know computer does not understand human language, it understands only binary language and we understand high level language.
  • Computer understands only 0 and 1 in binary language. Whatever we type on the computer, the operating system converts it into the binary language of the computer and transmits it to the computer, as well as the computer’s talk which is in the binary language, converts it into a high level language and transmits it to the user.
  • In this way the operating system acts as an intermediate between the user and the computer.
  • In simple language, it is the work of the operating system to transmit our talk to the computer, and to convey the computer’s talk to the user.
  • The operating system gives the user an interface environment to work on the computer. An operating system is made up of many instructions. Operating system is a type of system software.

Names of Operating System

main operating system

  • MS – DOS OS,
  • Windows OS,
  • Linux OS,
  • MAC OS,
  • Symbian OS,
  • IOS Android OS,
  • Vista etc.

Characteristics of Operating System

  • The operating system manages all the input and output devices of the computer.
  • Operating system works to manage all the processes of the computer.
  • The operating system works to manage all the files on the computer. Like which file is kept in which folder.
  • The operating system works to manage the computer’s memory, under which how much space is to be given to which function is determined.
  • The operating system manages the computer’s secondary storage devices, such as where the user-created files are to be saved.
  • An important task like network management in a computer is also done by the operating system. Like connecting to the Internet, connecting two computers together, etc., all the tasks related to the network are included.
  • The work of computer internal clock management is also done by the operating system.
  • The work of managing all the hardware devices of the computer such as keyboard, mouse, monitor etc. is also done by the operating system. In common language, which type of work has to be done from which device, this work is done by the operating system.

Operating System Types

Some types of operating systems are as follows –

Simple Batch Operating System :-

In this type of operating system there is no direct interaction between the user and the computer. Also, there is no mechanism for giving processes and priority. In this, the user has to submit a job (in writing on card or tape) to the computer operator. Then the computer operator maintains batches of many jobs on an input device, in these batches, both languages ​​and requirements are together. Then a specialized program monitors and manages the execution of each program in batch. Monitor is always in main memory and available for execution.

Multitasking or Time Sharing Operating System :-

Each task takes some time to execute so that all the work can be done smoothly. Time sharing operating systems enable people located on different terminals (shells) to use the same computer system at the same time. Processor time (CPU) which is shared among many users is called time sharing.

Multiprocessor Operating System :-

A multiprocessor operating system consists of multiple processors that share a common physical memory. Multiprocessor system provides higher computing power and speed. In a multiprocessor operating system, all processors work under a single operating system.

Real Time Operating System :-

A real time operating system is an operating system that is known to give maximum time for each critical operation, and which performs tasks such as handling OS calls and interrupts. This operating system which guarantees maximum time for critical operations and completes them on time is called hard real time operating system. Whereas such real time operating systems which can only guarantee maximum time, that is, give priority to important tasks over other tasks and there is no guarantee of its completion on time, then it is called soft real time operating system. Is known.

Distributed Operating System :-

These operating systems use multiple processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to their users. Processors communicate with each other through various communication lines such as high speed buses or telephone lines. This is called loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. The processor in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are referred to as sites, nodes, computers, etc.

Network Operating System :-

The network operating system runs on a server. It provides the ability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications and other networking functions. The primary purpose of a network operating system is to allow printer access to shared files between multiple computers in a network, usually a local area network (LAN), a private network, or other network.

Mobile Operating System :-

Mobile operating systems are those operating systems specifically designed to power smartphones, tablets and wearable devices. Some well-known mobile operating systems are Android and iOS, but others include Blackberry, Web and watchOS.

Operating System Function

An operating system software performs all the following functions –

Process Management :-

Process management helps the operating system to create and remove processes. That is, it manages all the processes running in the system. It provides the mechanism for synchronization and communication between processes. A process is simply a program, which is run by a user on a computer system.

Memory Management :-

It manages the location of the system’s memory for various processes. In addition, it also manages both primary and secondary memory.

File Management :-

An operating system manages all the files and directories of the computer system. A file is one in which any information or data is stored, and it is stored in the memory of the computer system. An operating system allows us to create, delete, protect and edit files in a computer system. In other words, it manages all the file related activities like organization storage, retrieval, naming, sharing and securing files etc.

Device Management :-

This function of the operating system is used to track and manage various devices that are connected to the computer system. This function responsible for this task is known as the 1/0 controller. An operating system interacts with hardware devices through special device drivers. Along with this, it performs the function of A-location and D-allocation of the devices.

Security Management :-

An operating system uses various technologies such as authentication, authorization, cryptography, etc. to ensure the security of the computer system. That is, it ensures the security of the computer system from various threats and virus attacks.

1/0 System Management :-

In this function, any operating system performs one of its main objects to hide the features of that hardware device from the user.

Secondary – Storage Management :-

The system has several levels of storage, which include primary storage, secondary storage and cache storage. In this function any instruction and data is stored in the primary storage or cache, so that a running program can refer to it.

Command Interpretation :-

This function is used to process the given command and to interpret the commands given by the acting system resources.

Networking :-

A distributed system is a group of processors that do not share memory, hardware devices, or a single clock. Processors communicate with each other through networks. And the same networking function happens.

Job Accounting :-

In this function the time and resources used by different jobs and users are tracked.

Communication Management :-

This function is used to manage the coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters and other software resources to various users of the computer system.

In this way, the performance of an operating system is completed through the performance of all the above functions. Operating system is one of the most essential components for any computer to run. The computer works only on the basis of the operating system. A computer is of no importance without an operating system.

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