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What is a resistor and how does it work

by Sudhir kumar

Have you ever heard What is a resistor, The simple answer to this question is that it is a passive electrical component that causes obstruction in the flow of electric current. This constraint is called resistance and this component is called Resistor.

When you have to know about electricity, then you must have learned that all the materials mainly fall under two basic categories are conductors and insulators. Where conductors (such as metals) allow electricity to flow through them; In the same way electricity does not pass through insulators (such as plastics or wood).

The scientific reason for this is that the resistance level in the Conductor is not equal, whereas in the Insulator it is very high. Resistance in this means to create an obstruction, which is such a thing that allows electricity without any hindrance. The greater the resistance means the more hindrance.

There are some such devices that also precisely control this resistance in electrical circuits, such devices are called resistors. If you want to know more about these resistors and how they work, what are their types, then you will get this article What is a resistor. So let’s start without delay.

What is a resistor

Resistor There is a passive electrical component that creates resistance in the flow of electric current. You can easily see them in any electrical network and electronic circuits. Resistance is measured in ohms.

Ohm is the resistance that occurs when a current of one ampere passes through one of the resistors which have a 1 drop across both terminals. This current is always proportional to the voltage across its two terminal ends.

This ratio Ohm’s law Is called:

R = V / I

If we talk about who discovered the Resistors, then it is Otis Boykin. He discovered it in 1959. Resistors are used in many functions.

Some examples such as delimit electric current, voltage division, heat generation, matching and loading circuits, control gain, and fix time constants. They are available commercially with resistance values ​​in which they can cover the magnitude of a large range, up to about nine orders of magnitude.

Together they are used for electric brakes to dissipate the kinetic energy of trains, or for its electronics, the smallest value is also used.

Resistor Definition & Symbol

A resistor is a passive electrical component whose primary function is to limit the flow of electric current. Its international IEC symbol Is a rectangular shape. There its ANSI standard Is very common, which is a zigzag line It does happen.

Type of resistor

Resistors can be divided into many types. Which includes everything from construction type to a resistance material. Let us know more about resistor type.

  • Fixed resistors (Their resistance value is fixed)
  • Variable resistors (Their resistance value can be given below), such as:
    1. Potentiometer
    2. Rheostat
    3. Trimpot
  • Resistance that depends on physical quantity:
    1. Thermistors (NTC and PTC) due to temperature change
    2. Photo resistor (LDR) due to changing light level
    3. Varistor (VDR) due to changing voltage
    4. Magneto resistor (MDR) changing magnetic field Because of
    5. Strain Gauges due to mechanical load

Resistor’s Applications

Resistors have a lot of applications, whether it is from digital electronics at the expense of precision components, or for physical quantities in a measurement devices.

Let us know more about some important application of their resistors.

Resistors in Series and Parallel

In electronic circuits, resistors are often used. They are either connected in series or in parallel. A circuit designer may obtain a specific resistance value to combine some resistors.

In Series connection, the same current must flow from all resistors and the equivalent resistance is equal to the sum of all individual resistors.

In a parallel connection, all resistors have the same voltage across, and the equivalent resistance inverse is the same, with the sum of the inverse values ​​of all parallel resistors.

Measure electrical current (shunt resistor)

Electrical current is calculated over the voltage drop of a precision resistor, where the corresponding value is already known, together with the circuit connected in series.

This current is calculated using Ohm’s law. It is also called an ammeter or shunt resistor. Usually it is a high precision manganin resistor which has a low resistance value.

Resistors used in LEDs

LED Lights need specific current to operate in all ways. LED light up will not only happen due to high current, while high current will cause device burn.

So they are fitted in series with resistors. These resistors are called ballast resistors and they passively regulate the current throughout the circuit.

Blower motor resistor

The air ventilation system in cars is actuate through a fan that is driven by a blower motor. A special resistor is used to control the fan speed. This is called blower motor resistor.

What is resistance?

Electricity needs electrons to flow into a material. These electrons are called small charged particles which are inside the atoms. In simple language, electrons are moving freely in the materials which conduct electricity.

For example, metals move electrons freely due to its crystalline structure. Therefore their resistance value is very low. On the other hand, if we talk about plastic then its body is not of crystalline structure, due to which electrons cannot move freely in it, due to which their resistance value is very high.

Resistance is called where voltage in volts is required so that current of 1 amp can be flowed through the circuit.

For example, if 500 volts are needed to flow 1 amp, then its resistance will be 500 ohms (also written as 500 Ω). You can understand it from the mathematical equation written below:
V = I × R

It is also called Ohm’s Law, German physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1789–1854).

How Resistors Work

People who need a particular value of resistance for any of their electric or electronic circuits, then they have to use resistors. A resistor is the resistance of a small package, which is coupled to the circuit so that the value of current can be reduced. From outside all resistors look the same.

But inside the Resistor they are different. If you have ever opened a resistor, then you have to first remove its upper outer coating which is insulating paint, by doing this you will see an insulating ceramic rod which is in the middle and copper wire wrapped around it. it occurs.

This type of resistor is also called wire-wound. The number of copper turns shows how much value there is in resistance. The thinner the copper and the more copper turns, the greater its resistance.

Smaller-value resistors are designed for lower-power circuits, but copper winding is replaced with a spiral pattern of carbon.

Such Resistors are very cheap to make and are called carbon-film. Wire-wound resistors are more precise and also more stable at higher operating temperatures.

Resistance and Temperature

The resistance of any resistor is not constant, no matter why it is fixed length and area: it steadily increases as temperature increases.

Why ?

The hotter the material gets, the more atoms or ions jiggle and then the more difficult it is for electrons to move, which increases electrical resistance.

The resistivity of most materials is linerly increased with temperature. If you cool a material, then its resistivity is also reduced.

If you cool down even more then the resistivity disappears after a while, hence its called superconductivity.

what did you learn today

I hope i got you What is a resistor Gave full information about and I hope you guys Resistor Must have understood what happens.

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