What is a capacitor and what is its function

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do you know that What is a capacitor. Capacitors (also called condensers), are energy-storing devices used especially in televisions, radios, and other types of electronic equipment.

Whether it is to tune your radio in a station, or flash for photos from a digital camera, or flick channels on your HDTV, we make good use of capacitors in all these places.

Like I have said before that Clouds also work in the same way as Capacitors used in electronic circuit, the only difference is that they are very large as compared to electronic capacitor. Let us further get all the information related to capacitors in this article. So without delay let’s start what is capacitor.

What is Capacitor – What is Capacitor in Hindi

Capacitors are passive electrical components that store electric energy. These were earlier known as condensers. A capacitor is made up of electrical conductors and are separated by insulators.

What is the capacitor in Hindi?

to this insulating layer dielectric is called. Although the same basic principle components are used in all capacitors, but the choice and configuration of the material are different from each other.

These are very common elements of any electrical or electronics circuits. For example, they are used only to allow AC current only and DC current To block To do this, in some places a smooth power supply is used for output.

function of capacitor

A capacitor is capable of storing energy as an electrostatic In the field that is generated by creating a across potential difference of coductors. So when the voltage across a conductor is given.

Then positive charge is collected in one plate of capacitor while negative charge in the other. That’s why physicists believe that a capacitor works by storing energy electrostatically in any one electric field.

Electric Charge And potential difference The ratio of (voltage) is called capacitance. It is measured in farads (unit). this is the main There is a parameter to describe a capacitor.

Capacitance is highest when the distance between the conductors is minimum and the surface of the conductors is maximum. Ideal capacitors There are only in theory which are completely described by capacitance, but some limitations do exist in the real world.

for example conductors and Lead wires produce parasitic inductance and resistance. Whereas the static electric field has its own limit of maximum strength, which is described by breakdown voltage, as well as the current that leaks from the dielectric is called leakage current.

types of capacitors

Although there are many types of capacitors, but I have provided information about some important capacitors below:

Ceramic capacitor

This type of capacitor is used in many applications whether it is audio or RF. Their values ​​range from picofarads to 0.1 microfarads. These ceramic capacitors are generally used mostly because they are cheap and reliable, along with their loss factor is very low.

electrolytic capacitor

Capacitors of this type are often polarized. They can offer very high capacitance values ​​– typically above 1μF, and they are often used more in low frequency applications – such as power supplies, decoupling and audio coupling applications, as they have a frequency limit if they are around 100. kHz then.

tantalum capacitor

Like electrolytic capacitors, tantalum capacitors are also polarized and provide very high and high capacitance levels in their volume. But these types of capacitors are absolutely intolerant towards reverse biased, and often explode when they are placed under stress.

Also, they should not be used in high ripple currents and voltages. These are available in both leaded and surface mount formats.

Silver Mica Capacitor

Silver mica capacitors are not used much anymore, but they provide very high levels of stability, low loss and accuracy where space is not an issue. They are used primarily in RF applications and their maximum values ​​are limited to 1000 pF only.

Polystyrene Film Capacitor

Polystyrene capacitors are a very cheap form of capacitor but offer close tolerance capacitors when they are needed. These are of tubular shape where the dielectric is rolled sandwiched between the two plates.

But this gives them the ability to limit the frequency response of inductance to a few hundred kHz. These are only available as leaded electronics components.

Polyester Film Capacitor

Polyester film capacitors are used where the cost gets a lot of attention as they do not offer very high tolerance.

Many polyester film capacitors have a tolerance value of 5% or 10%, which is sufficiently adequate for most applications. These are only available as leaded electronics components.

Glass capacitors

As the name suggests, glass is used as a dielectric in this capacitor. Although they are very expensive, these capacitors still offer very high levels of performance in terms of extremely low loss.

High RF current capability, no piezo-electric noise and other features make them ideal for many performance RF applications.

Supercap

It is also called supercapacitor or ultracapacitor, because these capacitors have a very large capacitance value, which can be up to about several thousand Farads. They are mostly used in memory hold-up supply and automotive applications.

What is Capacitance and how to increase it

The amount of electrical energy a capacitor can store is called capacitance. The capacitance of the capacitor is like a bucket of water, meaning that the bigger the bucket, the more water can remain in it, in the same way the bigger the capacitor, the more charge can remain in it.

There are mainly three ways to increase the capacitance of the capacitor.

Surface Area The surface area is written as A, it means that the two conductive plates which make up the capacitor, then the bigger the area in it, the bigger the capacitance will be.

Distance – Distance is written as d, it means that the smaller the distance between two conductive plates, the bigger the capacitance will be.

Dielectric Material – The material between these two plates, which separates both the plates, which is also called dielectric, then the higher the permittivity of this dielectric, then the higher will be its capacitance.

How is Capacitance Measured?

The size of the capacitor is measured in units called farads (F), which stands for English electrical pioneer Michael Faraday (1791–1867) is named after him.

One farad is a very high amount of capacitance, so most capacitors only use a few fractions of a farad typically microfarads (millionths of a farad, written µF), nanofarads (thousand-millionths of a farad written nF), and picofarads (million-millionths of a farad, written pF).

Standard Units of Capacitance

  • Microfarad (μF) 1μF = 1/1,000,000 = 0.000001 = 10-6 F
  • Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1,000,000,000 = 0.000000001 = 10-9 F
  • Picofarad (pF) 1pF = 1/1,000,000,000,000 = 0.000000000001 = 10-12 F

What is the function of capacitor?

Do you know what happens to the capacitor? We can use capacitors for many tasks. Let’s get a little information about them.

1. Capacitors are used to store charge, so it is used as a flash in the camera. Also Big lasers use the same technique for very bright and instantaneous flashes.

2. Capacitors are used to remove ripples. If there is a line going through DC voltage and has ripples or spikes, then these peaks can be easily removed by using a large capacitor.

3. Capacitor can block DC voltage. So if you put a small capacitor in a battery, then there will be no current flow between the two poles of the battery once that capacitor is charged.

What did you learn today?

I hope I told you guys what is capacitor? Gave complete information about and I hope you guys What is Capacitor Would have understood.

If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then you can write low comments for this. From these thoughts of yours, we will get a chance to learn something and improve something.

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