Pythagoras Biography in hindi Pythagoras was a great mathematician and philosopher of ancient Greece. In the field of mathematics, he is still famous for the ‘Pythagoras Theorem’. However, apart from his contribution to mathematics, Pythagoras is also respected in the history of the West as a composer, mystic, scientific and founder of the religious movement. This is because of his significant contribution to religious teaching and philosophy in the 6th century BC. He founded the Pythagorean cult, whose activities were very secret.
- 1 Biography of the great mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras (Biography of Great Mathematician and Philosopher Pythagoras in Hindi)
- 1.1 The Birth and Early Life of Pythagoras (Birth and Early Life of Pythagoras)
- 1.2 Establishment of the Pythagorean cult by Pythagoras (Establishment of Pythagoreans Thought by Pythagoras)
- 1.3 personal life of pythagoras (Personal Life of Pythagoras)
- 1.4 Death of Pythagoras (Demise of Pythagoras)
- 1.5 Pythagoras’ giving to the world (Endowment to the world by Pythagoras)
- 1.6 Pythagoras: At a Glance (Pythagoras : At a Glance)
- 1.7 Share this:
Biography of the great mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras (Biography of Great Mathematician and Philosopher Pythagoras in Hindi)
The followers of Pythagoras were called the Pythagoreans. Regarding the music of the time, Pythagoras believed that there was not enough harmony in them. So he sought to translate the rhythm of music into mathematical equations. Although Pythagoras has clarified the theory of number in detail in his articles, there are differences among scholars even today regarding its interpretation.
The Birth and Early Life of Pythagoras (Birth and Early Life of Pythagoras)
Pythagoras was born in 570 BC on Samos, a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean. It is believed that his mother Pythias was a native of that island and father Manesarchus was a merchant of Tire based in Lebanon who traded gems. It is also said that Pythagoras also had two or three siblings. Pythagoras spent most of his childhood in Samos. When he grew up, he started going on business trips with his father. During this time Pythagoras’ father took him to Tire and started teaching him there from the scholars of Syria. It is believed that Pythagoras also visited Italy during this period.
However, the order of Pythagoras’ education continued during his visits to various places. He studied the poetry of Homer as well as the plays of the harp. Apart from taking education from the scholars of Syria, Pythagoras also made the scholars of Shalidia his teacher. Pheresydes of Ceres was the first teacher of Pythagoras, from whom he learned philosophy. At the age of eighteen, Pythagoras traveled to Milets where he met Thales, a scholar of mathematics and astronomy. Although Thales was very old by that time and was not in a position to teach, Pythagoras was greatly impressed by his meeting and he became interested in the study of science, mathematics and space science. To give shape to his eagerness and curiosity, he made Thales’ learned disciple Anximander his mentor and started studying mathematics deeply. Many of the theories propounded by Pythagoras in later years were found to be very similar to those of Anaximander. It is believed that the Astronomical and Geometrical Theories propounded by both are naturally developed forms of the theories propounded by their gurus.
Later, in 535 BC, Pythagoras went to Egypt to study with the priests of the temple. Thales had also suggested him in this regard in the past. But there is another belief in this regard that Pythagoras had turned to Egypt after being saddened by the atrocities of the ruler of Samos, Polycrates. Pythagoras lived in Egypt for about ten years. Here he got admission in the temple of Diospolis after fulfilling the necessary rules and later he was recognized as a priest. It is also believed that for some years Pythagoras also took education from Oenuphis, the priest of Heliopolis.
According to the available articles regarding Pythagoras, in 525 BC, when the ruler of Persia, Cambyses II, invaded and conquered Egypt, Pythagoras was taken captive and taken to Babylon. But here Pythagoras soon mingled with the priests and scholars of Persia and started taking mathematics, science and music lessons from them. Meanwhile, in a sudden event in 522 BC, the tyrannical ruler of Persia, Cambyses II, died in a suspicious state, and Samos was also freed from his terror. This event led Pythagoras to return to Samos and he returned to Samos in 520 BC.
Establishment of the Pythagorean cult by Pythagoras (Establishment of Pythagoreans Thought by Pythagoras)
After returning to Samos from Persia in 520 BC, Pythagoras opened a school he named Semicircle. His method of teaching in this school was different from the traditional methods of that time, so people could not be attracted quickly and his education business remained sluggish. During this time, the politicians there wanted to include Pythagoras in the administrative work of the city, but this work also did not suit them. Finally in 518 BC he moved to the city of Croton in southern Italy and decided to establish his center of education there. Although many scholars believe that Pythagoras went there to study law and then came back. But as the available evidence shows, Pythagoras began teaching extensively in Croton. Soon the number of his followers started increasing here. Here he founded a secret religious sect. It is believed that this secret cult of Pythagoras was similar to the Orphic cult and was probably influenced by it.
Pythagoras through his budding cult began to attempt to improve the social and cultural life of Croton. He used to inspire the citizens there to follow virtue in life. Soon his effort was successful and the number of his followers started increasing and all of them became a group. Later on, this group of followers came to be known as the Pathagorians. The rules for operating the center established by Pythagoras were very strict. However, he made it a rule for both boys and girls to take admission in his center equally. The center’s sevadar or worker was called methmetkoi. These sevadars left their homes and lived in the center i.e. the monastery. Vegetarian food was mandatory for them. But the students living near the center who studied only there were called Akousmatikoi and were allowed to stay in their own house and eat whatever they wanted. It would not be wrong to say that Pythagoras followed a life full of religious education, simple food, exercise and philosophical education. Pythagoras considered music necessary for this life, so singing hymns for his followers was included in the routine. He used the tunes of the veena for self-realization and for the treatment of many physical ailments. Similarly, to increase memory power, there was a rule to recite poetry before sleeping.
Pythagoras had implemented a rule in his monastery called Achemathia. This rule was made to keep peace in the monastery. There was a provision of death penalty for those who broke this rule. At the same time, the Akousmetikoi members of the monastery were not even allowed to see Pythagoras nor were they taught the secrets of the cult. Although he was certainly allowed to learn parts of the secret meanings. The consequences of such discrimination also emerged among the disciples of Pythagoras. In the cohort itself, one of his disciples, Akusmetkoi, named Cyclone, killed several Methmetkoi disciples in anger. After this both the groups completely separated from each other. In this separation, Theno, the wife of Pythagoras, and their two daughters led the Mathematica group. According to available records, Theno was the daughter of an Orphic follower and a mathematician. He also wrote several books on child psychology including mathematics, physical and medical sciences. However, today nothing of his writing has survived.
Many things were forbidden in the sect of the Pathagorians. For example, the foot should not be on the crossbar and the beans should not be eaten. He also believed that walking under the stairs is unfortunate. Due to all these superstitions, Pythagoras was called by a section of the society at that time with a derogatory title like Mystikos logos.
personal life of pythagoras (Personal Life of Pythagoras)
Pythagoras was married to a woman named Theano. Theo, a believer of the Orphic cult, is believed to have been his first disciple in the school or monastery of Croton. Theno was a philosopher and authored the books ‘On Virtue’ and ‘Doctrine of Golden Mean’. It is known from various available sources that Pythagoras had a son named Telegas. Apart from a son, he also had three daughters named Damo, Arignot and Maiya. According to the information available from some sources, the total number of his children was seven. The second daughter of Pythagoras, Arignot was also a learned woman who wrote the books ‘The Rites of Dionysus’ and ‘Sacred Discourses’. His third daughter Maiya was married to the famous wrestler Milo of Croton. It is said that Milo lived with Pythagoras and once saved Pythagoras’ life in an accident.
Death of Pythagoras (Demise of Pythagoras)
It is said that like other intellectuals, Pythagoras was also blunt, due to which he had made many his enemies. One of these enemies once incited some people against Pythagoras and set fire to the house where he stayed. But he was saved in this conspiracy. After this he left Croton and went to Metapontam. It was here that he died at the age of 90 in 495 BC. Although the cause of his death is still unknown, he is said to have been murdered by the people of Syracuse in a conflict between Agriantum and the Syracuse group.
Pythagoras’ giving to the world (Endowment to the world by Pythagoras)
As a Mathematician Pythagoras is especially known for his geometrical discovery ‘Pythagoras’ theorem. This theorem is one that proves that in a right angled triangle the square of the side opposite the right angle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. However this is disputed because according to historical facts this theorem has been used by Babylonians and Indians long ago. Along with this, Pythagoras has also clarified the theory of numbers. He believed that the whole sequence of life is governed by numbers. All these numbers have their own specialties, strengths and weaknesses. He considered the number 10 as a whole number. In support of his side, he had said that the sum of the first four numbers (1+2+3+4) gives 10 and when these four numbers are kept in the form of dot notation, a triangle is formed. Pythagoras considered geometry to be the highest level of study of mathematics because he believed that only the study of geometry could explain the physical world.
Endowment in Religion and Science – In the view of Pythagoras, religion and science complement each other. Religiously, he himself was a follower of the Metapsychosis sect. He believed in reincarnation of souls. He believed that the soul does not get salvation until it keeps taking birth on earth again and again in human, animal or plants. It is clear from this thinking of Pythagoras that he was influenced by ancient Greek religion on the issue of reincarnation. He used to say that he remembered his four lives. He had said that the process of thought does not go on in the heart but in the mind. Pythagoras considered numbers to be the essence of life. He believed that the universe was created from the stability of all the elements. He used to say that human life and body depend on a constant ratio. If there is more or less in this, then imbalance arises and the human body suffers from disease. To maintain the balance of human life, he considered the study of mathematics as essential.
Endowment in the field of Music –
Pythagoras had a great interest in music and was also a good harp player himself. He considered music to be essential for the smooth running of life. But the lack of harmony in the music kept knocking him. That’s why he wanted to improve the music. It is said that to overcome this lack of music, he discovered to translate musical notes into mathematical equations.
Apart from the above, Pythagoras was one of the physicists who thought that the earth is round and all the planets revolve around a central point. However he was unable to identify that the central point is the Sun.
Although not much information is available about Pythagoras, but from what is available it is clear that his philosophy was no ordinary. Though there are differences between scholars and historians on his philosophy and thinking, it cannot be denied that the Greek philosophers after him also have a glimpse of Pythagoras’s thinking.
Pythagoras: At a Glance (Pythagoras : At a Glance)
|Full Name||Pythagoras (according to historical accounts)|
|profession||philosopher and mathematician|
|birth place||Samos, Greece|
|place of death||metapontam|
|baby names||Telligas, Damo, Arignot and Maia|
|Tasks and Achievements||Philosophical education with the gift of ‘Pythagoras’ theorem to the world in the field of mathematics|