Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar (Dr. BR Ambedkar) is also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar. He was a uniquely gifted person. He was a sage, scholar, hardworking hero, philosopher, social worker and a very patient person. He was a good leader in the true sense, who devoted his whole life to the welfare of the oppressed Dalit people of India.
At the time when 80 percent of India’s Dalits were socially and economically cursed, and were forced to live a very miserable life, at that time Bhimrao Ambedkar tried to get rid of the curse and made it the purpose of his life. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar is also remembered as the architect of the Constitution.
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, this great leader who got the constitution of India, was born on 14 April 1891 in a small village of Mhow in Madhya Pradesh. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s father’s name was Ramji Maloji Sakpal and mother’s name was Bhimabai. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s childhood name was Bhimrao Sakpal.
Dr. Ambedkar’s ancestors served in the British East India Company’s army for a long time and his father served in the Mhow Cantonment of the British Indian Army. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was the fourteenth child of his parents. Since childhood, his personality was characterized by sharpness of memory, intelligence, honesty, truthfulness, regularity, perseverance, etc. He was endowed with innate talent.
Childhood and introduction to untouchability :
Bhimrao Ambedkar was born in the Mahar caste, which people considered as untouchable and very low class. As a child, Bhimrao Ambedkar’s family was deeply discriminated against socially and economically. In 1894, Bhimrao Ambedkar’s father retired and two years later, Ambedkar’s mother also died. The children were looked after by their aunt living in difficult circumstances. Ramji Sakpal’s only three sons, Balram, Anandrao and Bhimrao and two daughters Manjula and Tulasa survived these difficult conditions, the rest of the children succumbed to premature death.
Bhimrao’s (Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar) father always insisted on the education of his children, but among his brothers and sisters, only Bhimrao Ambedkar was successful in the school examination and after that he succeeded in going to the big school. Incidentally, Bhimrao was very much liked by a Brahmin teacher of Satara village. Brahmin teacher Mahadev Ambedkar had special affection for him and on his behest, Ambedkar removed Sakpal from his name and added Ambedkar which was based on the name of his village “Ambavade”.
After completing his primary education in India, the Maharaja of Baroda, Sayajirao Gaekwad, sent Bhimrao Ambedkar for higher education abroad in 1913 by giving him a scholarship, being a meritorious student. Bhimrao Ambedkar did an in-depth study of political science, sociology, anthropology, philosophy and economics at Columbia University in America. While studying in America, he saw a new world in which there was no curse of Indian society and the soot of untouchability derived from the Janmasutra.
Dr. Ambedkar read his famous paper on ‘Indian Caste Division’ in a seminar in America, in which his personality was praised everywhere.
making of indian constitution:
After a long struggle, India had to present its constitution after liberation from the slavery of the British. At that time, apart from Dr. Ambedkar, no other expert was suitable for framing the Indian Constitution. Therefore, Dr. Ambedkar was unanimously elected as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly. On 26 November 1949, the Constitution (Article 315) composed by Dr. Ambedkar was passed.
He did the important work of preparing the Indian Constitution based on equality, equality, fraternity and humanity in 02 years, 11 months and 17 days.
In the year 1951, he tried to get the Hindu Code of Women’s Empowerment Bill passed and when it was not passed, he resigned from the post of the first law minister of independent India.
Dr. Ambedkar made Election Commission, Planning Commission, Finance Commission, Uniform Civil Hindu Code for women and men, State Reorganization, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Rights, Human Rights, Election Commissioner and Social, Economic, Educational and Foreign Policy. He ensured the participation of the people of AC-ST in the legislature, executive and judiciary.
During an oppressed class conference on August 8, 1930, Ambedkar presented his political vision to the world, according to which the security of the oppressed class lies in being independent from both his government and the Congress.
Ambedkar’s reputation was that of an unparalleled scholar and jurist, despite his controversial views, and bitter criticism of Gandhi and the Congress, due to which, when the new Congress-led government came into existence on 15 August 1947, after India’s independence, Ambedkar He was invited to serve as the country’s first law minister, which he accepted.
On 29 August 1947, Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee for the creation of the new constitution of independent India. The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949. Ambedkar organized a formal public function for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on October 14, 1956. Ambedkar embraced Buddhism by adopting the traditional way of three gems and Panchsheel from a Buddhist monk.
Contribution of Dr.Ambedkar in nation building:
Social and Religious Contribution:
- Worked to eradicate social evils like human rights such as temple entry of Dalits and Dalit tribals, drinking water, untouchability, caste, high and low.
- He started movements like Manusmriti Dahan (1927), Mahad Satyagraha (1928), Nasik Satyagraha (1930), Yevala Ki Roar (1935).
- Edited five weekly and fortnightly magazines, namely Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit Bharat, Samta, Janata and Prabuddha Bharat, during the years 1927 to 1956, to make the voiceless, exploited and uneducated people aware.
- Through hostels, night schools, libraries and educational activities, students from weaker sections were able to study as well as earn income. In 1945, through his People’s Education Society, he established Siddharth Mahavidyalaya in Mumbai and Milind Mahavidyalaya in Aurangabad.
- Through the Hindu Bill Code, women fought for its implementation by providing for divorce, succession in property etc.
Economic, financial and administrative contribution:
- The Reserve Bank of India in India was established in 1935 on the basis of Dr. Ambedkar’s work ‘The Problem of Rupee – Its Origin and Effect’ and ‘History of Indian Circulations and Banking’ and ‘His Evidence before the Hilton Young Commission’.
- On the basis of his second research ‘Development of Provincial Finance in British India’, the Finance Commission was established in the country.
- In the year 1945, he paved the way for the country’s water policy and industrialization economic policies such as linking rivers and streams, Hirakud Dam, Damodar Valley Dam, Son River Valley Project, National Waterways, Central Water and Electricity Authority.
- The proposal of the Central Waterways and Irrigation Commission proposed in 1944 was approved by the Viceroy on 4 April 1945 and proposed for the implementation of large dam techniques in India.
Bhimrao Ambedkar was suffering from diabetes since 1948. He was very ill from June to October 1954, during which he was suffering from clinical depression and deteriorating vision. He died in his house on 6 December 1956 during his sleep in Delhi. In 1990, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour.
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